Biblical Greek

 Dr. J. W. Roberts' Memorial Greek Web Page

 

 

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Goal of this Page

The goal of this page is to encourage children of God to learn to read the New Testament in the original Greek with expression and understanding in order to enrich their spiritual lives and bring glory to God.  

This page is dedicated to the work of Dr. J. W. Roberts. Dr. Roberts taught Greek at Abilene Christian College from 1946 to 1973. Here is a short biography and complete bibliography:  Restoration Quarterly 1974. You can purchase my paperback edition of his superb Greek grammar by clicking on the following link: A Grammar of the Greek New Testament for Beginners.  You can preview the interior in pdf format by clicking on the following link:  A Grammar of the Greek New Testament for Beginners.  Dr. Ian Fair, who studied under Dr. Roberts and taught Roberts' Grammar at the Natal Bible School in South Africa, encouraged me to republish Roberts' great work, mentioning that it was a truly great grammar. Here is a page of Audio Instruction for J. W. Roberts' Grammar of the Greek New Testament for Beginners. Here are all the Lesson Vocabularies. 

Here is a preliminary Spanish version: Una Gramática Greiga del Nuevo Testamento para Principiantes. This is the textbook that I am using with my Spanish speaking students studying NT Greek at the Instituto Latinioamericano de Estudios Bíblicos  (ILEB) en Toluca, Mexico. Here is the ILEB Facebook Page. Here is my Cumulative Vocabulary and Exercises for McKibben’s translation of W. H. Davis Gramática Elemental del Griego del Nuevo Tetamento. Here is a good copy of Davis’ Grammar in English. 

 Here are some articles by Dr. Roberts from the Restoration Quarterly: Every Scripture Inspired of God, and The Preposition eis in Mat. 12: 41That Faith Only Translation. "His specialized fields for teaching were New Testament Greek and the Bible. He held membership in the Society of Biblical Literature and the American Academy of Religion. [From 1958 on, Roberts taught from his own mimeographed textbook, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament for Beginners. One of his great dreams (unfilled during his lifetime) was to have his material - which he considered the best "tested" method for teaching Koine Greek - published. Here is link to his excellent commentary on James

 Dr. Roberts was born August 28, 1918 and passed away on April 15, 1973. 

Progress to date

I originally published the lesson individually in pdf files. The last lesson was posted on 6/20/05.  Much thanks to Wayne Price, a former student of Roberts, who taught my Online edition and helped to bring it to a high degree of correctness. Thanks also to David Singleton, a former student of Dr. Roberts, who loaned me his personal copy of Roberts' Grammar with his classroom (margin) notes so I could include some of Roberts' intended revisions in the present work. Many of the Lessons have recently undergone extensive correction as of 3/16/06. Moving to a new server made it necessary to republish Dr. Roberts' Grammar (10/8/12). I took the opportunity to combine all lessons into a single pdf file. Beginning in early October 2014, I began preparing my Word files for a paperback with CreateSpace. By the grace of God, I managed to publish it the last day of 2014. 

A Comparative Lexicon of New Testament Greek (1954, 2021) by L. R. Elliott, Revised by Donald L. Potter. I bought this book at a book sale at the Grace Theological Library in Warsaw, IN, in July 1999. The book proved so valuable to that I decided to retype it to publish myself. It will help you build your Greek vocabulary quickly by learning the roots, prefixes, and suffixes. 

 Students using Roberts' Grammar will find Dana & Mantey's Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament an invaluable reference source. Here is a pdf of a Spanish translation of Dana & Mantey This is an excellent scanned copy, that is perfect for reading with on an iPad in iBook or for running off a hard copy on a printer. Unfortunately it is no longer in print. Brooks & Winbery's Syntax and Morphology are excellent references book to use with Roberts' Grammar.  They follow the 8 case approach. Another book I have used extensively is A Greek Grammar of the New Testament: A Workbook Approach to Intermediate Grammar (1979) by Curtis Vaughn and Virtus E. Gideon. 

 H. P. V. Nunn's Masterpiece for Beginners

One of the best text for learning New Testament Greek ever published was H. P. V. Nunn's Elements of New Testament Greek. It is noteworthy because of its clear introduction to English grammar, up-to-date information from comparative philology, detailed accidence (morphology), and ample exercises from Greek to English and English to Greek to make sure the Grammar is thoroughly mastered. A Key is available for students studying on their own. He also published A Short Syntax of NT Greek, that presents the material in an inviting and readable format. I am thrilled to announce that on May 13, 2020 Lexham Press published John D. Schwandts revision of Nunns grammar, An Introduction to Biblical Greek

Ray Summers (1950) Essentials of New Testament Greek. This was my first Greek grammar! Donald Wise at the Moody Bible Institute was my instructor. Here is Thomas Sawyers 1995 Revision of Summers Essentials. Here is Steven Coxs Student Guide to the Revised Edition of Summers Essentials. Here is a link to Summers Morpheme Practice. And here are my Worksheets for Summers Exercises. I recommend downloading them to Notability for practice on an iPad or other tablet. Here are my Quizlet Flashcards for Summer’s Vocabulary. Here are my Quizlet Flashcards for the Principal Parts in Summer’s Revised Essentials (Following Dana Harris’ suggestions) Here is a good article on the nature and use of Principal Parts

Elementary NT Greek (2014) by Joseph R Dongell. Some of the clearest explanations of NT Greek morphology and grammar found anywhere. 

Watson E. Mills New Testament Greek: An Introductory Grammar (1985) an interesting 8-case Grammar. 

Bruce Metzger Lexical Aids for Students of NT Greek (1998). Every student of NT Greek should have a copy of this valuable work. By the same author, anyone wanting to learn to read the ancient Greek manuscripts will find Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Greek Paleography an essential tool. 

 You can type Greek with Type Greek. Learn how to type the Greek Alphabet with this program.

 Lee Irons's Greek Syntax Notes will help to facilitate your study of the finer points of Greek syntax. His Upper-Register website has lots of research articles. 

The Greek New Testament for Beginning Readers: Byzantine Textform. This is the finest tool for students seeking to learn to read the Greek New Testament. It is especially noteworthy for the information on parsing verbs. It will do wonders for your sight reading ability. Here is the same wonderful book in Free PDF: Readers Edition. Here is the 2018 update to the RP Byzantine Textform

Greek New Testament Reader with Word Parsing, Morphology, and Dictionary. This features the Society of Biblical Literature Greek text edited by Michael Holmes. Very helpful. 

Tyndale House Greek NT STEP. This is the link to the Byzantine Greek Text. There is amazing amount of information available by clicking on any word.

Here is a Complete Video Course in NT Greek featuring David Allen Black´s Learn to Read New Testament Greek. 

Here is an oral rendition of John Chapter 1.

Here is my Progress Chart for Darryl Burling’s Mastering NT Greek

Greekdoc.com: NT, OT, Apocrypha, and Early Church documents in Greek with parsing and definitio

C. B. Hale’s (1982) Let’s Study Greek is a unique approach to learning NT Greek using interesting narratives.  Unfortunately its is currently out of print. James Boyce published a private edition with a key in 1998. 

Septuagint of Genesis formatted for fluent oral and silent reading. I created this document myself. 

 Concerning my Greek System of Pronunciation 

My own Greek pronunciation largely follows the recommendations in W. S. Allen's Vox Graeca: A Guide To The Pronunciation Of Classical Greek,Cambridge 1987. You can purchase Allen's authoritative book at: Vox Graeca: W. Sidney Allen.   I privately published a work entitled  A Practical Guide the Pronunciation and Reading of New Testament Greek in 1987, in which I sought to apply my studies in Ancient Greek pronunciation and Articulatory Phonetics to the oral rendition of New Testament Greek. Here is an early edition of Vox Graeca in pdf format. Ηere are some extensive Pronunciation Drills for Koiné Greek that I developed March 2021. 

 Welcome to the Ancient Greek Tutorial site of the Department of Classics of the University of California, Berkeley, a project of Professor Donald Mastronarde and the Berkeley Language Center. I recently discovered another web site loaded with practical information on Ancient Greek pronunciation, including audio files and numerous links: Biblical Greek Pronunciation 

 Institute of Biblical Greek: Guide to various Pronunciations of NT Greek

Listen to the Greek Text of Ephesians
 Read by Dr. Louis Tyler

Dr. Tyler has just recorded (Jan. '06) the Robinson-Pierpoint Byzantine Greek NT. I will leave the earlier recordings of the Textus Receptus below for those who prefer the TR.  To listen just click on the chapter: Ephesians 1Ephesians 2Ephesians 3Ephesians 4Ephesians 5Ephesians 6The Partiarcial Text of the Greek Orthodox Church is virtually identical to the R-P text. Ephesians - Greek Orthodox Text. Here is an Interview with Robinson. Dr. Tyler now has his own website: www.AudioHebrewGreekBible.comVocabulary of the Word Forms in Ephesians

 My good friend Louis Tyler M. Div, M.A., Ph.D. made these recordings for me when I was teaching Spanish at the Bowie Junior High in Odessa, TX. It is a meticulously accurate recording of the book of Ephesians from F. H. A. Scrivener's 1894 and 1902 edition of the Textus Receptus. Click on the Chapter Links below to listen to the mp3 audio. Ephesians 1Ephesians 2Ephesians 3Ephesians 4Ephesians 5Ephesians 6

Here is Ross and Elizabeth McKerras excellent rendition of Ephesians on YouTube: Ephesians 1Ephesians 2; Ephesians 3; Ephesians 4; Ephesians 5; Ephesians 6.  

 Byzantine Greek New Testament. This is a brand new edition based largely on f35. You can download the beautiful paragraphed text on your iPad. You can also cut and paste into a word processor.

Here is Dr. Louis Tyler’s audio recoding of Jonah in the LXX. This is a great opportunity to broaden and deepen your experience reading Hellenistic Greek. Jonah 1, Jonah 2, Jonah 3, Jonah 4. Here is a convenient copy of the LXX of Jonah to use with the recordings

Here is a link to Dr. Louis Tyler’s recording of the entire Robinson-Pierpoint Greek NT Textform.  

The Gospel of John in the Nestle-Aland 26 Edition. A superb reading with Erasmian pronunciation. The accents and phrasing is excellent. The rho is not trilled.  Here is Christophe Rico reading John Chapter 1 in Erasmian pronunciation. Be sure and watch Dr. Rico’s Sixth Renaissance

George Ricker Berry The Interlinear Literal Translation of the Greek NT. And here is a modern defense of the Hamilton Interlinear Method of learning foreign language. Here is Hamiltons The History, Principles, Practice, and Results of the Hamiltonian System (1769-1829)

The Tyndale House Greek Text of Mark. This is a sample from The Greek NT recently published by Tyndale House Cambridge. It is based on the oldest manuscripts and recent research into scribal habits. Here is a verse-by-verse comparison of the Robinson-Pierpoint Byzantine Text-type of Mark and the Tyndale House Greek text. 

A Systematic Plan for Mastering the Greek Text of Mark. This is a plan I created for repeated reading of Mark’s Gospel to improve my ability to sight read NT Greek. Here is my Workbook for Mastering the Greek Text of the Gospel of Mark. Here is my Vocabulary Aid and Parsed Verbs for the Gospel of Mark.  Here is a specially formatted Greek of Mark’s Gospel. Here is The Gospel of Mark Vocabulary Practice. Eugene Nida: Learning by Listening. Click on the chapter to access Dr. Louis Tyler’s recording of the Robinson-Pierpoint Byzantine Textform: Mark 1, Mark 2, Mark 3, Mark 4, Mark 5, Mark 6, Mark 7, Mark 8, Mark 9, Mark 10, Mark 11, Mark 12, Mark 13, Mark 14, Mark 15, Mark 16

Brooks & Winbery (1979) Syntax of New Testament Greek. An outstanding 8-case grammar. 

 Patriarchal Text  (1904) of the Greek Orthodox Church. This text of the NT is great because it can be pasted into a Word document with all the accents, breathings, etc. 

Students Textus Receptus: This is the 1855 American Edition Polymicrian Testament by William Greenfield. It is one of the most helpful Greek texts for students learning N.T. Greek. 

Solid Rock Greek NT: Scholars Edition (2018). This is a text produced on Byzantine-priority principles. 

Word Picture in the New Testament by A. T. Robertson. This is even better than the original because it presents the Greek words in Greek rather than English transliteration. 

Septuagint Greek Text by the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. 

Septuaginta This is a very readable copy of the Rahlfs/Hanhart edition. It can be cut and pasted into text documents. You can also find the Nestle Aland 28ed and BHS Hebrew. 

 F. H. A. Scrivener's Η ΚΑΙΝΗ ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗ. A Greek based on the 1550 TR of Stephanici. It has a magnificent cross-reference system and textual apparatus including readings from Tischendorf, Westcott-Hort, et. al. If it where still available, it would be my NT Greek Study Bible. 

Hodge & Farstad The Greek NT According to the Majority Text, 2nd ed. I read this critical text of the New Testament through in 1984 for my daily devotional. 

 The new 28 edition of the Nestle Aland Greek NT is available Online.  As the INTF worked through the Catholic letters, they came to see much greater value of the Byzantine manuscripts than they had previously. The NA 28 recognizes the "readability of the mainstream tradition." this welcome change in perspective was made possible because of exhaustive collations. See Dan Wallace

 The #1 app for reading and studying Greek is Bible Web App. I know of no better tool anywhere for any price for helping your read your Greek New Testament. 

Here are some very detailed, extensive, and helpful NT Greek Charts for Global Learners by R. Aschmann. 

Intermediate Biblical Greek Reader: Galatians and Related Texts (No Date, 2010 or later) Nija K. Gupta & Jonah M. Sandford. For those who have completed a beginning Greek course, this book will help you reach the next level. 

Mark in Greek by Rob Plummer. There are recorded videos explaining the Greek in every verse in Mark. Rob is coauthor of Going Deeper with NT. Greek

  John Dobson's Learn New Testament Greek is a very popular method. The audio is very good Erasmian pronunciation. He follows the same linguistic principles that I have used in teaching my language classes. 

Cheryl Lowe, a leading author and publisher in the Classical Core Curriculum movement, recently alerted me to the virtues of Clayton Croy's Primer of Biblical Greek. I highly recommend this well organized and thorough grammar of NT Greek. A tremendous of valuables Online help is available: Croy Resources. The Eerdmans resources are excellent: includes answer key! Mrs. Lowe passed away in July 2017. 

Greek to Me: Learning New Testament Greek Through Memory Visualization by J. Lyle Story & Cullen I. K. Story. I taught this text in the late 1970's with great success. I thought it was out of print, but am glad to discover that it is still for sale at a very low price. It would be great to use with local Church people desiring to read the NT in the original language. You can order a CD, Flash Cards and other material to accompany the program at Greektome.biz

Greek New Testament: LaParola

 Listen to Genesis in Greek read by Anton Tasos This is excellent modern Greek pronunciation. 

Home School Greek: For students laboring to make their own way into Greek without a teacher, I recommend Harvey Bluedorn's Home School Greek. Harvey's method is largely programmed so the student can teach himself. Audio Cassettes are available. Order your copy at: Home School Greek  

Here is a interesting, interactrive story approach to learning begining Koine Greek: CALL: Koine Greek

New Testament Greek: A Beginning and Intermediate Grammar (1986) by James Allen Hewett, one of the better NT Grammars. 

Lumina: An Online App that will let you read several English (including NET) and a Greek text of the New Testament with notes. 

Westcott  & Hort Resource Center. A good source of information on Wescott & Hort, and downloadable copies of their works. 

A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint (2003) by Johan Lust, Erik Eynikle, and Katrin Haupie. This is a pdf of the whole lexicon!  

Biblical Greek Illustrated by Examples by Maximilian Zerwick S. J. An exceptionally valuable work. I bought my copy on 6/27/72! 

An Introduction to the Study of New Testament Greek (1955) 5th Edition of James Hope Moulton’s book (1909, 1914), edited by Henry G. Meecham. 

 Greek Fonts

I recommend the UNICODE Classical Greek Font, which is available for download from Tavultesoft:  Keyman 6 It is easy to touch type all the Greek letters and accents! This is quite an improvement since the days when I typed the English with my Royal Safara manual typewriter, and wrote the Greek by hand! Unfortunately this doesn't work with my new Mac!!! Will someone please make a Keyman keyboard for Mac! I use the Unicode program that comes with the Mac; it confuses my fingers and fries my brain - but I manage. After 6 years typing Greek on my Macbook, I eventually mastered the new keyboard and can touch type Greek, Spanish, and English. It still seems weird to type upsilon with the y-key, but my mind finally accepted the new system. I use the SIL Galatia font most of my work with the Macbook. 

        Dr. Gleason Archer

One of the very best tools for learning Greek was Dr. Gleason Archer's Greek Master by Heaven Word. I have spent many happy hours listening to his rendition of Matthew, John, and Roman. I have found that listening, is the best way to learn any language. His pronunciation is exactly like mine, except that I trill my rhos, and deaspirate my stops. His oral rendering of the Greek accents is precise. He carefully connects the proclitics and enclitics with the words to which they are to be pronounced. I developed my system of pronunciation years before listening to Dr. Archer's, but it is very gratifying to learn that a highly respected Greek scholar has adopted for his personal reading of the Greek text a nearly identical method. This program had the whole New Testament according to the American Bible Society 4th ed., with an excellent interlinear for those who need it.   We lament that Dr. Archer passed away on April 27, 2004. Here is Dr. Archer's oral rendition of the Sermon on the Mount: Matthew 5. Matthew 6. Matthew 7. It is very important to understand that Dr. Archer is reading at a conversational speed and with fluency and accuracy. Lamentably the program is no longer available, I am told because of a lack of interest. What a shame! Nothing even close has come along to replace it. On October 25, 2017, I found a recording of Dr. Archers oral rendition of John 1-9 that I had transferred from the program to a separate archive file: John 1John 2. John 3.  John 4. John 5. John 6.  John 7. John 8John 9

One book that I have used almost daily to assist me in reading my Greek New Testament is that most helpful volume, Grammatical Analysis of the Greek NT by Max Zerwick. Basically it is a one volume commentary on the grammar and vocabulary of the Greek New Testament. Order your copy at : Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament. With nothing but Zerwick, a good lexicon, and a basic Grammar (like the one by J. W. Roberts mentioned above) the serious student can go a long way in reading the Greek NT for himself.

The Clementine Tradition: Bernard Orchards thesis on the order, dating, and dependence of the Gospels: Matthew Luke Mark. 

I have several lexicons in my library from an 1850 edition of Edward Robinson to the latest BAGD. Quite frankly there are two that answer most of my needs and are small and easy to tote about. They both have the handy feature of listing irregular verbs in alphabetical order, eliminating the need for an analytical lexicon. The first is better but much more expensive. They can both be ordered on-line at:  Shorter Lexicon: Gingrich-Danker or  Dictionary of the GNT: Newman. Now add Danker's The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the NT

Eric Sowell (2002) An Intermediate Guide to Greek Diagramming. I learned to diagram Greek from William LaSor's Handbook of NT Greek in the mid 1970's It was an exhilarating experience. 

Grammar Notes for New Testament Greek prepared by James L. Boyce, Luther Seminary (2003)

Diagramming and Conducting a Grammatical Analysis. Excellent information on how to diagram Greek sentences. 

R. W. Funk (1972) Beginning-Intermediate Grammar of Hellenistic Greek, Vol. 2. Hands-down the best syntax written from a modern linguistic viewpoint. 

S. Walter Green (1906) Lessons in New Testament Greek (A Secondary Course) with Exercises and Reading Lessons. A fine book for students familiar with the elements 

Moisés Silva (1983) Biblical Words and Their  Meanings: An Introduction to Lexical Semantics  

Eugene Van Ness Goetchius (1965) Language of the New Testament. One of the most used book in my library, specially strong on morphology and sentence structure. 

Harold Greenlee A Concise Exegetical Grammar of New Testament GreekThanks to Asbury Theological Seminary for making Greenleehelpful work available for free digital download. 

Joseph l. Dongell (2015) Elementary New Testament Greek. This is the first year Greek grammar used at Asbury Theological Seminary, an excellent work. 

Robert Dean, Jr. (2003)  Greek Grammar for Those Who Don’t Know Greek. A very practical introduction to NT Greek. 

Biblical Greek Language and Linguistics (1993) edited by Stanley E. Porter & D. A. Carson. Extremely important, especially re. Verbal Aspect. 

Greek Accents: A Students Manual by D. A. Carson. This is a high quality pdf of the book. I have used it extensively in my studies of New Testament Greek. He uses the British order of the cases.

 The OpenText.org website offers some astute analysis of the Grammar of the Greek NT. I wouldn't consider a study of a NT text complete without reference to this site.

 Elements of Fluency in Reading Greek  A Short but helpful article by Rodney A. Whitacre on developing fluency in reading Greek. I also suggest reading while listening to a good recording such as Dr. Luis Tyler's renditions of the WH and Robertson-Pierpoint Byzantine texts. 

 Danny Zacharias has rich NT Greek page at Helping People Learn Greek

 Learn to write and read Byzantine Greek Cursive.  

TextKit.org had lot of old language book available. They were early pacesetters in publish classical material, much of which is now available from other sources. 

David Alan Black's Greek Resources Online page.

 Christological Greek Grammar; The Person and Work of Christ in Ephesians  by Dr. Gary Staats. A very helpful work, especially for beginning students of Greek.  

 F. A. Adams (1885) The Greek Prepositions, Studied from their Original Meanings as Designations of Space. A most helpful work for learning those pesky prepositions. 

 Moses Stuart and Edward Robinson A Greek Grammar of the New Testament, 1825. Here is the 1841 edition: A Greek Grammar of the NT.

 William Trollope 1841 A Grammar of the Greek New Testament and to the common or Hellenic diction of the Later Greek.

 Edward Robinson's 1851 translation of Phillip Buttman's A Greek Grammar for the Use of High Schools and Universities. Here is some information on the Life of Edward Robinson. He was the premier American Biblical scholar of his day.

 William Webster's The Syntax and Synonyms of the Greek New Testament, 1865.

 For a very excellent study of the Greek Moods and Tenses as used in the Greek New Testament, students can still gain valuable insights from E. D. Burton's Syntax of Greek Moods and Tenses

 J. Hope Moulton's A Grammar of the Greek New Testament: Prolegomena, 1906. The same year Moulton delivered a very readable lecture, The Science of Language and the Study of the New Testament. The second volume, A Grammar of NT Greek covering Sounds and Writing & Word Formation by Howard. 

 W. F. Moulton's translation of G. B. Winer's A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek, 1882. I find it interesting that Harold E. Hoehner's recent (2002) Exegetical Commentary on Ephesians had numerous references to this edition of Winer. I have spent many pleasant and profitable hours studying Hoehner's master work on Ephesians.

 Machen, Davis, and Cary - Free beginning Greek grammars on the web

New Testament Greek for Beginners by Machen has long been a favorite textbookHere is Dan G. McCartneys 2nd ed.  of Machens NT Greek for Beginners.  A Study Guide for J. Gresham Machens N Greek for Beginners (1980). W. H Davis wrote a fine NT Greek Grammar that is available for download at: Beginner's Grammar of NT Greek. (Davis Grammar is in pdf format) Davis' Grammar fortunately, like Roberts, introduces the infinitive earlier than Machen and others, allowing the students to compose and read Greek much earlier. It has recently been republished in an revised and expanded format by Dr. Shackelford: Davis' Grammar Revised. Here is a note on the "Preface" from the Southwester Baptist Theological Seminary. I have published Corrections to Shackelford-Davis. Davis is very strong on the accents. Davis also has much more detailed information concerning Greek usage than Machen.  Here is a excellent pdf file for Davis' Vocabulary. Here is an excellent PDF of Davis Grammar. Here is a excellent PDF of Machens NT Greek for Beginners. Answer Key to Machen’s Grammar. Study Guide for Machen’s NT Greek for Beginners (1980) by David L. Thompson. A very detailed and helpful guide. 

Geo. L. Cary (1878) An Introduction to the Greek of the New Testament. Libravox has recorded all of Cary Introduction. The recordings make are excellent for self-study. Here is the Archive copy of An Introduction to the Greek of the New Testament. It is especially good for developing fluency. 

 R. W. Funk's A Beginning-Intermediate Grammar of Hellenistic Greek. I used this modern structural grammar a lot when I was beginning to learn NT. Greek. A very complete and helpful work. I notice that C. B. Hale assisted with the editing. Obviously written before Funk joined the Jesus Seminar. Here is a free copy of the Workbook. It is  also available in a new paperback edition: Beginning-Intermediate Greek. Funk also translated and edited the famous and useful A Greek Grammar of the NT and other Early Christian Literature and by Blass-DeBrunner (1961). Usually abbreviated BDF. 

Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study: Revised & Expanded Edition by Frederick W. Danker (1993). A Bibliography with valuable help on how to use the tools. I have used the first edition this book since 5/18/71!

David Aan Black (1995) Linguistics for Students of NT Greek. I have used this book for years and found it very valuable. 

Alexander Souter (1917) A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New Testament. I have a beautiful hardbound copies of this book, which has seen heavy use in my ministry.

G. Abbott-Smith (1922) A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament. An excellent lexicon that I have used for years. 

Gramática Elemental del Griego del Nuevo Testamento. Puede descargar este gramática gratis. 

Encountering New Testament Manuscripts: A Working Introduction to Textual Criticism (1974) by Jack Finegan. Light from the Ancient Past: An Archaeological Background of Judaism & Christianity. 

 Read the Old Testament in Greek Online

For an excellent, readable copy of the Old Testament in Greek A. E. Brooke, N. McLean, H. St-J. Thackeray, ed., London : Cambridge University Press, 1906-. I read the Greek OT for my daily devotions in 1978. It was a marvelous experience, and I recommend at least one reading of the entire Greek OT with a pen in hand for noting vocabulary, grammar, and spiritual points of interests. Read the Old Testament in Greek.

Greek Language Tools An interesting phonics approach to Greek morphology. 

You can read a facsimile of Erasmus' Greek New Testament and a lot of other old Bibles at Bibles-Online.net 

Greek New Testament (by Tony Fisher): the text of the New Testament is rendered here as images. You do not need any Greek fonts installed to view the pages.  If you click on a Greek word, it turns red and a table appears, giving morphological information about the word, including its root and grammatical category. You can also do word searches. This is an excellent aid for anyone seeking to learn to read his Greek New Testament. 

 For a very learner-friendly introduction to Homeric Greek, I highly recommend The Greek Enchiridion.

 An amazing amount of Greek grammar information can be found at the following site: Greek Grammar.

The Online Greek Bible: This web site offers NT search capability along with parsing. It is a great source to have up and running when reading the New Testament: The Online Greek Bible.

 Elementary New Testament Greek by Open Texture is a three year program for NT Greek.

A. W. Argyle (1965) An Introductory Grammar of New Testament Greek with Exercises. A very delightful and well organized grammar, superb for review. 

 For a veritable plethora of information on New Testament textual criticism, see the TC Links page.

 A. W. Wilson has provided us a fresh perspective on NT Textual Criticism 

The Princeton Classical Language Instruction Project has some good classical audio. 

Edward Robinson's 1850 Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament. Although old, this lexicon is especially valuable because of its examples of word usage from classical authors. 

 Here is Hudsons 1875 Critical Greek and English Concordance of the New Testament. 

 J. A. Bass 1860 A Greek and English Manual Lexicon to the New Testament with Examples of all Irregular and more Difficult Inflections

Alexander Souter (1917 ) A Pocket Lexicon of of the Greek New Testament. A good lexicon that made use of papyri discoveries. Here is Souters The Text and Canon of the New Testament (1913)

Here is a school edition of Edward Robinson's earlier edition: A Greek Lexicon to the NT (1836) Charles Robson. 

You can purchase Maurice Robinson's Byzantine text at: The New Testament in the Original Greek.

Here is an article by Henry C. Theissen, "Should NT Greek Be Required in Our Ministerial Training Courses?" 

Machen: The Minister and His Greek Testament. Here is a brief but vital excerpt: "The Greek of the New Testament is by no means a difficult language; a very fair knowledge of it may be acquired by any minister of average intelligence. And to that end two homely directions may be given. In the first place, the Greek should be read aloud. A language cannot easy be learned by the eye alone. The sound as well as the sense of familiar passages should be impressed upon the mind, until sound and sense are connected without the medium of translation. Let this result not be hastened; it will come of itself if the simple direction be followed. In the second place, the Greek Testament should be read every day without fail, Sabbaths included. Ten minutes a day is of vastly more value than seventy minutes once a week. If the student keeps a "morning watch," the Greek Testament ought to be given a place in it; at any rate, the Greek Testament should be read devotionally. The Greek Testament is a sacred book, and should be treated as such. If it is treated so, the reading of it will soon become a source of joy and power." Here is a Spanish translation: El Ministro y su Nuevo Testamento Griego

 A. T. Robertson's (1909) A Short Grammar of the Greek New Testament. This was revised in 1933 with the help of William Hershey Davis and published as A New Short Grammar of the Greek New Testament. His 1903 Bibliography for Study of New Testament Greek can lead to some important sources. Here is Robertson's inaugural address on Preaching and Scholarship. Read it closely, dust off your NT, and preach better sermons! The Robertson-Davis (1933) A  New Short Grammar of the Greek New Testament 10th remains a goldmine of information. 

 A. T. Robertson's (1919, 3rd edition) A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. I got my copy of Robertson's Big Grammar on August 14, 1972. For the next few weeks, the world outside of my office stopped as I devoured Robertson's Grammar. No one ever made Greek Grammar as exciting as Dr. Robertson. One neglects Robertson's Grammar at his own exegetical peril.

 A. T. Robertson (1923) The Minister and His Greek New Testament. You will need special Greek font to read the Greek words. 

 J. H. Moulton's Introduction to the Study of New Testament Greek (1895). Note that this is a book for beginners, not to be confused with his larger Prolegomena. Robertson mentions the book, but says that it is was not well adapted to American schools. I have a hardbound copy in my library. I have found it quite helpful. 

 P. Thomson (1895) The Greek Tenses in the New Testament: Their Bearing on its Accurate Interpretation. I discovered this book while examining the bibliography of A. T. Robertson's Short Grammar above. This is a fascinating and practical work. It includes "A Rendering of the Gospels and Notes" discussing the implications of tense for translation and interpretation of Gospel texts." A work you will want to read with your Greek New Testament in your hand! 

 John A. Battlefield Jr. 1975 PhD thesis: The Present Indicative in NT Exegesis. Other eSources are available from the Gordon Faculty Online

 Gessner Harrison (1858) Treatise on the Greek Prepositions and on the Case of the Nouns with which they are used. Harrison taught John A. Broadus who taught A. T. Robertson. I saw a copy of this at the Winona Lake Theological Seminary Library in Warsaw, Indiana. Harrison was one of the first scholars to make use of the new knowledge of comparative philology.

Emily Helen Dutton Studies in the Greek Prepositional Phrases διἀ, ἀπὀ, ἐκ, ἑν. (1916). Α full length monogram. 

 Clyde W. Votow's The Use of the Infinitive in New Testament Greek (1896).

Richard Weymouth 1894 On The Rendering into English of the Greek Aorist and Perfect and The Resultant Greek Testament. 

 William Ramsey has a complete Greek Course available at Inthebeginning.com 

Here are some Classical Greek texts with accompanying translations to aid you in expanding your Greek horizons beyond Biblical literature Classical Greeks Texts with Translations. Some of the translations are from ancient to modern Greek, others to English.

Acts of Apostles Translated from the Greek on the Basis of the Common Version  (1858) by Alexander Campbell. Three columns comparing the KJV & Greek Text & Campbell's Revised Version accompanied with extensive notes on the Greek text justifying his translation. Exhibits wide reading and careful judgment. 

 Moses Stuart (1832, 1854) Commentary on Romans

 Moses Stuart 1845 Commentary on the Apocalypse.

 John Eadie (1883) Commentary on the Greek Text of Ephesians. Samuel Turner (1856) The Epistle to the Ephesians

 Arthur Ellis 1862 Bentlii Critica Sacra (The textual and biblical scholar, Richard Bentley notes.)

 DeWette 1858 An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Historical Books of the New Testament.

 Rose's 1833 editon of Middleton's famous 1828 Doctrine of the Greek Article.

 A. C. Barrett 1878 Companion to the Greek New Testament A Cambridge School and College Textbook.

 C. E. Hammond 1880 Outlines of Textual Criticism Applied to the New Testament.

 B. B. Warfield 1897 Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament. A very clear and easy to understand introduction for the beginner in the field. 

 Marvin R. Vincent 1899 A History of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament.

 F. H. Scrivener 1861 A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament for the Use of Biblical Students. In general, he defended the traditional text. Also his 1859 Contributions to the Criticism of the Greek New Testament being the Introduction to an Edition of the Codex Augiensis and Fifty Other Manuscripts.

 Edwin Abbott's Johannine Vocabulary 1905; and Johannine Grammar 1906. The Fourth Gospel 1913, something of a commentary on John with considerable reference to the Synoptics. It is important to keep in mind that Abbott denied the miraculous elements of the Gospels and OT, but his Greek scholarship was impeccable and of lasting value.

 Here and There in the Greek New Testament by Potwin. An excellent little introduction to exegesis. 

Richard A. Young (1989) "Classification of Conditional Sentences Based on Speech Act Theory.” 

 A First Greek Reader with Notes and Vocabulary by Charles Melville Moss, 1887. A good reader for beginners. 

 E. A. Sophocles: History of the Greek Alphabet with remarks on the Orthography and Pronunciation, 1848.

 The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin by E. H. Sturtenvant, 1920. This is a standard work in the field by a leading linguist of the time. 


The Restored Pronunciation of Greek and Latin, 1908. 

Here is a book comparing Modern and Ancient Greek pronunciation: The Modern Greek: Its Pronunciation and Relation to Ancient Greek. Also see the thoroughly delightful work, Greek and Latin as in Rome and Athens, or, Classical Languages and Modern Tongues (1880) by Francis M. Wyndham. 

 Richard Payne Knight's An Analytical Essay on the Greek Alphabet, 1791. An old but interesting work.

 William Penn 1874 How to Learn to Read the Greek New Testament.

 A Practical Guide to the Greek New Testament, 1900. Samuel Bagster & Sons. A neat book for getting quickly into the GNT. It will take you through the Sermon on the Mount!

 A. T. Robertson's tells us, "The best discussion of comparative grammar for beginners is the second edition of P. Giles 1901  A Short Manual of Comparative Philology for Classical Students

 Analytical Vocabulary 1878 of all the words in the Greek New Testament. An extremely valuable work for enabling one to master the vocabulary of the Greek New Testament. 

 Here is Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Teatament 1889. I had the privelege of studying under Professor R. C. Foster, a student of Dr. Thayer. Dr. Thayer also wrote a helpful book, Books and Their Use, An Address, to which is appended a list of books for Students of the New Testament

 H. B. Sweet's great commentary on the Greek text of Mark

Samuel H. Turner (1856) The Epistle to the Ephesians: In Greek and English, with an Analysis and Exegetical Commentary. 

Hobart's 1882 Medical Language of Luke. Here is Harnack's great work on Luke: Luke the Physician. Plummer's commentary in the International Critical Commentary remains a model of scholarship. William Ramsay wrote Luke the Physician. 

 Greenfield and Hunt Greek Papyra Series II. 

 Samuel J. Andrews (1870) The Life of Our Lord Upon the Earth Considered in its Historical, Chronological, and Geographical Relations. This is a very valuable work, deserving careful study. It will build your faith. Here is the 1903 Revision of this worthy work 

 John William Donaldson (1862 ) A Complete Grammar for the Use of Students. This work is particularly valuable because it makes use of comparative philology and is quite complete. He also wrote (1859) The New Cratylus: Or Contributions Toward a More Accurate Knowledge of the Greek Language.

 F. W. Farrar (1867) A Brief Greek Syntax and HInts on Greek Accidents, with Some Reference to Comparative Philology and with Illustrations from Various Modern Languages. I am not so sure what he meant about "brief," but the work is very valuable. He intended to make it interesting for boys. That's what he said! His Life of Christ is exciting and informative, and his Life and Work of St. Paul remains worth reading. 

John H. Huddilston (1895 ) Essentials of New Testament Greek. I have a 1947 reprint of this book. I had planned to scan it and publish it here. Thanks to GoogleBook for doing the work for me! Machen used Huddilston in the preparation of his still-popular beginners' grammar.

C. B. Williams (1908) The Participle in the Book of Acts. Important for its attempt to classify the participles. He later published a modern speech translation of the NT which attempted to express the Greek tenses with care. Here is a complete Biography of C. B. Williams

Adolf Deissmann (1908) New Light on the New Testament from the Records of the Graeco-Roman Period. Deissman's work continues to impact modern New Tesament scholarship. Also important is his Philology of the Greek Bible. Lectures delivered to the Cambridge summer school of the Free churches, July and August, 1907. First published in the "Expositor," October 1907-January 1908. 

Edwin Hatch (1889 ) Essays in Biblical Greek. Hatch attempts to show how the LXX influenced the meaning of NT words. Considered a pre-Deissmann work because he did not make much use of the new papyri finds. Here is Hatch's 1888 Hibbert Lectures: The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church, fourth edition, 1892.

Horace Addison Hoffman's (1919) Everyday Greek: Greek Words in English including Scientific Terms. The best book I have seen for learning English words that come from Greek. The book requires a knowledge of the Greek alphabet. A very fine book. Highly recommended.

F. A. Paley's (1881) A Short Treatise on the Greek Particles According to Attic Usage.

Hatch and Redpath (1906) Concordance to the Septuagint. Still the standard. 

Moulton and Geden's (1900) Concordance to the Greek Testament remains a model of industry and accuracy.

R. C. Trench (1906 edition) Synonyms of the New Testament. A helpful work in NT exegesis.

James Clyde (1881, 6th edition) GREEK SYNTAX WITH A RATIONALE OF THE CONSTRUCTIONS CONTAINING AN ENGLISH SUMMARY FOR THE USE OF LEARNERS AND A CHAPTER ON ACCENTS. An extremely useful work. Published late enough to make good use of comparative philology, but too early to make use of the new papyri finds.

Chr. Wordsworth's (1881) Greek Text and notes of the Gospels. 

Hawkins' Horae Synopticae (1909) Contributions to the Study of the Synoptics.

Sources of the Synoptic Gospels (1915) by Carl S. Patton, based on Two-Source Theory. A very detailed and interesting study.

Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels (1895) Patton J. Gloag. 

The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers. (1905). This work is a technical discussion of the manner in which the Apostolic Fathers quoted from the New Testament.

Louis Bevier, Jr. (1903) Brief Greek Syntax. This is a handy and useful review of Greek syntax. We all need to review the basics from time to time to keep sharp. I do, anyway!

John T. White's (1877) St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans with Greek Vocabulary. One of the all time best aids for learning to read Romans. The vocabulary is priceless. Other book by John T. White with vocabularies: 1885 John1887 Matthew1888 Luke1885 Acts of Apostles1886 Mark,

Arthur Charles Barrett's (1869) Companion to the Greek New Testament. An older book, but contains a lot of helpful information. 

Morrison and Goddell (1903) Greek Lessons for Beginners. Of all the beginners books for Classical Greek this is the most brilliantly organized that I have seen. Those who have worked in the field of NT Greek would do well to go through this grammar one time to refresh and deepen their feel for the language. Here is Goddell's 1903 School Grammar of Attic Greek.

I have used George Morish’s A Handy Concordance to the Septuagint during most of my ministry. 

George Campbell's 1835 The Four Gospels Translated from Greek

Sir Frederick Kenyon's 1901 Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament. A scholarly introduction to the subject. 

John Burgon's 1896 The Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels. A thoughtful defense of the Traditional Greek text of the NT. 

S. W. Whitney 1892 The Revisers' Greek Text: A Critical Examination of Certain Readings, Textual and Marginal, in the Greek of the NT Adopted by the Late Anglo-American Revisers. An important and often overlooked work. 

Camden M. Corban 1913 The New Archaeological Discoveries and Their Bearing Upon the New Testament and Upon the Life and Times of the Primitive Church. I have had a copy of this book in my library for many years. it is a great work written after the discovery of the non-literary papyri. 

 John Holmes 1765 The Greek Grammar. Old but extraordinarily interesting. 

 A. T. Robertson 1920 Luke the Historian in the Light of Research. One of the best things Robertson ever published. My copy sees frequent use. 

 Granville Sharp 3rd Ed. 1803 Remarks on the Use of the Definite Article in the Greek Text of the New Testament with Many Proofs of the Divinity of Our Lord.  Rev. Christopher Wordsworth's